Bloom’s Taxonomies

Most educators are familiar with Bloom’s (Cognitive) Taxonomy which is based on the following six-level structure:




Bloom believed that the ability to understand and apply knowledge was essential before advanced levels of development, such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation could be attained.

This model is very useful when planning learning objectives and aligning those objectives to differentiated assessment for learning strategies.

However, it is less well-known that Bloom also contributed to the development of taxonomies in all three learning domains; Cognitive (knowledge), Affective (attitude) and Psychomotor (skills).

Bloom devised his Affective Domain Taxonomy with Krathwhol and Masia in 1964. This particular theory advocates an approach for developing beliefs, mindsets, attitudes or behaviours. As per the others, the Affective Domain provides a framework for effective teaching, learning and assessment.


Bloom's Affective Domain
This five-stage model is based on the assumption that the learner is open to, and has a genuine willingness to change. It is perfectly reasonable to expect that some learners could oppose the tutor’s perspective of what is being taught if it is not compatible with the learner’s current beliefs.

It is important to grab the learners’ attention from the outset and create opportunities for them to share their feelings, and address any potential resistance to change.

Ideally, learning should also include links to experiences that develop attitudes and mindsets. In doing so, learners can develop social skills, personal relationships as well as their value systems.

As such, it is probably the most complicated of all three domains and requires more time for learning to be embedded than the others.


The Psychomotor Domain focuses on skills development, specifically the physical aspects of accomplishing a task.


This model was finalised by Ravindrakumar Dave, who argued that learners must first observe, imitate skills, and then repeat them from memory before mastery can be achieved.

In order to maximise the learning opportunity, learners should be clear about what they will be able to do by the end of the session (outcomes). The tutor’s demonstration can take many forms, eg in person or using video, before allowing learners to do it for themselves.

Nowadays, the term ‘skill’ covers a multitude of attributes, which means that this Domain extends beyond the original traditionally intended manual and physical skills; tutors should therefore consider this Domain even if they think learning is adequately covered by the Cognitive and Affective Domains.


Further Reading
Bates, B., (2016) Learning Theories Simplified: Sage Publications Ltd.



Big Four

We have completed our first round of formal training session observations, and some common themes have emerged that we can work on as a team. Also, our 2015-2016 Quality Improvement Plan (QIP) has been finalised, detailing clear targets and actions for improvement identified in the self-assessment report (SAR). Self-assessment and quality improvement planning must be integrated into the wider quality assurance and planning processes of all training providers.

It is important that a strong link is made between quality improvement and strategic planning. Although a provider may produce a whole-organisation self-assessment and quality improvement plan, this is normally evidenced by a subset of quality improvement plans produced by the curriculum areas. In our case, the resulting subset for our training and assessment team is called “The Big Four.”

Big Four Poster Jan 2016
Learner-centred Teaching
The emphasis in any learning environment should be on the learning outcomes and the purpose of learning rather than on control. Learners should not be regarded as empty vessels; they come with their own perceptions, prior knowledge, attitudes, opinions and preferences etc.

We know that learners learn in different ways and have different learning styles. Personalised/individualised approaches to teaching are encouraged which will help to foster creativity in learners.

The role of the tutor is that of facilitator, helping learners to access and process information. This probably means ‘less’ work for the tutor during the training session (as learners are directed to solve carefully constructed tasks by themselves, and in collaboration with their peers, under the tutor’s supervision), but more work outside the session to plan and then evaluate learners’ work in preparation for the next session.


English Language Development
One of our targets is to ensure all tutors and assessors correct spelling and grammar of all written work.  There must be minimal errors of spelling, grammar punctuation in learners’ written work, which will result in learners who are all able to make outstanding progress in improving their English (and Maths). This will be supported via feedback and the documentation generated for assessment visits.

When conducting research for assignments, learners need to know how to make effective decisions about what they have read – when to skim, when to focus, and how to take concise quotes. Copying from source material constitutes plagiarism and does not indicate whether the learner understands the context or implications of the material.

Learners can also develop the quality of their English via speech. In this instance, tutors should be using specific strategies to improve the quality of any discussions, and any tutor intervention should be should be minimal and timely.


Most educational research indicates that around 80% of classroom questioning is based on factual, recall questions which do not develop higher-order thinking skills.

Outstanding tutors use an array of approaches to assessment which maximise the quality of information they receive, whether that is around prior knowledge or checking that learners have really learned (and understood) what was originally planned. Using this information enables them to make judgments and accelerate the progress of learners.

You cannot measure progress without first establishing the starting points of the learners. Their individual starting points vary, depending on what is being covered during that session eg topics covered in school or college, topics covered in previous training sessions, and experience gained on work placements. This ties in with differentiation and equality and diversity.


Getting to know our learners and using that knowledge to shape the training session is an important prerequisite for effective differentiation, not only does this empower them, but it also demonstrates equality and diversity. Tutors should view every interaction as an opportunity to get to know their learners better.

The question tutors must ask themselves throughout their training session is: “Has sufficient provision been made for all learners to be included?”

Our target is to develop a set of resources and CPD training sessions aimed at helping tutors challenge all learners, such that they all feel stretched by training. Every tutor should also be able to make outstanding provision for additional needs.


Further Reading
Gadsby, C., (2012) Perfect Assessment for Learning: Independent Thinking Press.
Jones, R., (2014) Don’t Change the Lightbulbs: Crown House Publishing Ltd.
Maclean, A., (2004) The Motivated School: Paul Chapman Publishing

5-Minute Lesson Plan by Ross Morrison McGill

5-Minute Lesson Plan

  • The big picture: How does the session  fit into the scheme of work/main topic? What knowledge are learners coming to the session with already? What links have you made/can you make? Describe the lesson in 30 seconds!
  • Objectives: The objectives for the current session. The arrow is just a visual reminder that the session is building on what’s gone before. Try to incorporate at least 2 different leveled objectives – perhaps allowing learners to choose their own.
  • Engagement: What’s the hook? How will you gain learners’ attention at the start and throughout the session in ways that are exciting and meaningful (without the you having to work too hard!)?
  • ‘Stickability’: What will stick in learners’ minds as they leave the session? What key point(s) should they remember and bring back to the next session?
  • AfL: How will you assess where your learners are at during the lesson, so as to know how to take them where you want to go? What Assessment for Learning (AfL) strategies are you going to use? What key questions will help you to lure learners into learning? Plan for various AfL strategies to allow learners to see progress. Use a Targeted-Question grid to help frame higher-order questions. Where possible, use the Pose Pause Pounce Bounce AfL strategy to stimulate discussion and incorporate stretch and challenge.
  • Keywords/Numeracy: Literacy has never had such a high-profile as it has at the moment. Encourage learners to read aloud. Pick out keywords and extrapolate their meanings. Plan what keywords you want learners to learn. This promotes high levels of literacy which is an Ofsted focus. You should also add numeracy to this section. Every session should involve some mathematical content, where applicable.
  • Differentiation/Groupings: Plan what activities you will provide for gifted and talented students (G&T); learners with SEN (Special Educational Needs) and EAL (English as an additional language). How will you embed Equality and Diversity (E&D)? What sort of groupings are needed? What are they doing and when? Is this mapped to a seating plan with current levels of progress?
  • Learning activities: What is going to happen in the session from start to finish? Identify as many opportunities for learner-led learning as possible. The four boxes on the template do NOT denote a four-part lesson. Just use as many as required to show what needs to happen.

Session planning is not just a box-filing exercise, and the sections do not have to be completed in the order that they are presented on the template. Every box should have some content, even if only to show that a particular aspect of teaching and learning is ‘N/A’; This indicates that every aspect of teaching, learning and assessment has been considered.


The following video shows how Dulwich College identifies strategies for AfL and differentiation after outlining each learning activity.

Remember that the end of a training session is just as important as the start, so learners should not simply pack up and drift out of the room. This is an opportunity to reinforce ‘stickability’ and set expectations for the next session.

The Learner Voice

The learner voice is an important part of the Ofsted Common Inspection Framework.

The Ofsted survey report, Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Further Education and Skills – What Works and Why, September 2014, recommends that for providers to improve their teaching, learning and assessment, leaders should ‘draw fully on learners’ views about the teaching, learning and assessment that they receive to inform self-assessment and improvement actions’.

We need to listen to our learners in order to improve the quality of our services, and in the same way that feedback we give to them must be impactful, resulting in positive change, we must reciprocate with the feedback given to us.

A teaching observation is a 45 to 60-minute snapshot of delivery on an entire programme and can be affected by nerves, a bad day, sickness etc. However, an effective learner voice provides more of an overview into the entire programme and so is highly significant.

Using both strategies in conjunction enables us to compare our view of our services with that of those that use them.

Other benefits of the learner voice:

  • We can get instant feedback from the group of people who are most important;
  • We demonstrate our priorities to Ofsted; and
  • It provides an evidence base for the SAR.

One of the ways we collect feedback from associates is via our monthly online survey known as The Associate Barometer. The purpose of this survey is to collate regular feedback on associates’ motivation and identify those in danger of leaving prematurely.

There are a number of questions about training, mentoring and work placements, and the three key questions are:

1) Please rate your last month on the programme (0-10)

2) How challenging are you finding the programme? (Too challenging / Appropriately challenging / Not challenging enough)

3) Do you feel that you are receiving enough support on the programme? (Yes/No)

Another vehicle for obtaining feedback from learners is a recently-elected Associate Board, made up of one representative from each of our nine step teams. The Board will meet once a month for approximately two hours. Each meeting will include updates from the Step Forward Delivery Leadership Team as well as requests for feedback from each Step team.

There may also be times when Associate Board members choose to share ideas or are asked to present work they have done outside the meeting.

The aim is that this will be a forum in which everyone is able to speak openly about the successes and problems the associates and programme as a whole face, with the aim of improving the programme for everyone involved.

Associates are the only people present at all pathway training sessions, PD sessions, ILP meetings, assessment visits, and mentoring meetings, and are therefore best placed to provide the most comprehensive feedback about the programme.

Feedback is not Marking

The old-fashioned image of a solitary tutor wading through piles of marking has proven to do very little to raise achievement, because:

  • Learners don’t always read the written feedback they receive;
  • If learners read their feedback, they don’t necessarily understand it; and
  • Even when it is understood, learners might not act on it in a way that helps them make progress.

Feedback, on the other hand, should be interactive and collaborative. It’s part of a working partnership and not limited to achieving success in assignments or exams.

The Ofsted outstanding criteria require that:

Learners are making substantial and sustained progress as a result of incisive feedback.

Therefore, feedback must be impactful, resulting in positive change, as opposed to merely indicating correct and incorrect answers in the work that associates are producing.
An interesting piece of research conducted jointly by The Sutton Trust and The Education Endowment Foundation (EEF), suggests that effective feedback can accelerate learning by up to 8 months. On a 12 month programme like ours, this is highly significant.

When giving feedback, tutors, assessors and mentors should also promote English, mathematics, ICT and employability skills where appropriate.

In those instances where it is possible for associates to achieve the units comprising their qualification without correct and accurate numeracy and literacy, we would be doing them a disservice by ignoring these. Even if we don’t, they will be held to account further down the line for incidences of poor spelling, grammar, punctuation and basic mathematical ability.

On the Step Forward programme, opportunities to give feedback are many and varied, including conversation, demonstration and observation.

Within our delivery team, verbal, non-verbal and written feedback are given to and received by associates, tutors, assessors, mentors and employers. The following checklist is useful for pathway training, PD training, ILP visits, assessment visits, assignments, exams and one-to-one meetings:


Feedback Review Checklist

  1. Do the associates understand the assessment criteria and what members of staff are looking for?
  2. Are the associates assessed regularly?
  3. Are there examples of comments that give appropriate advice?
    Do staff pose questions as part of their feedback or identify specific areas for improvement?
  4. Are associates made aware of spelling, vocabulary, punctuation and numerical errors?
  5. Do associates respond to feedback?
    Does their work and/or behaviour show progress over time?
  6. Are there areas of good practice to share?
    Are there areas of strength in the associates’ work?


Further Reading
Bentley-Davis, C., (2014) How to be an Amazing Middle Leader: Crown House Publishing Ltd.
Gadsby, C., (2012) Perfect Assessment for Learning: Independent Thinking Press.